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This is an ABM where payments for environmental services are allocated by means of auctions among interconnected farmers. The bidding strategies are influenced by social interaction.
Our model allows simulating repeated conservation auctions in low-income countries. It is designed to assess policy-making by exploring the extent to which non-targeted repeated auctions can provide biodiversity conservation cost-effectively, while alleviating poverty. Targeting landholders in order to integrate both goals is claimed to be overambitious and underachieving because of the trade-offs they imply. The simulations offer insight on the possible outcomes that can derive from implementing conservation auctions in low-income countries, where landholders are likely to be risk averse and to face uncertainty.
A model of farmers adopting silvo-pastoral practices under the influence of payments for ecosystem services. Farmers are also impacted by opinions and self-efficacy diffusing in social networks. The model aims to shed light on the permanence of PES schemes and non-monetary factors impacting adoption. It was successfully calibrated and validated with empirical data.