This model is a simulation of the ceremonial exchange network in Papua New Guinea called the Kula Ring. In the Kula Ring, there are two types of gifts that travel in opposite directions: armshells counterclockwise and necklaces clockwise. This model is a replication of some aspects of a model created by Rolf Ziegler. The purpose of Ziegler’s model was to account for the emergence and stability of this exchange network.
2008 What makes the Kula go round? A simulation model of the spontaneous emergence of a ceremonial exchange system. Social Networks 30: 107-126.
2007 The Kula Ring of Bronislaw Malinowski: A Simulation Model of the Co-Evolution of an Economic and Ceremonial Exchange System. Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich.
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